Background: The integration of salivary biomeasures in biobehavioral, psychophysiological, and clinical research has greatly expanded our ability to study the biopsychosocial processes underlying health. Much of this research, however, has failed to adequately assess and adjust for the impact of oral immune activity on salivary biomeasure concentrations and associations with serum levels. Aiming to improve the validity and reliability of salivary biomeasure data, we examine salivary total Immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a potential surrogate marker of oral inflammation and immune activity. During a single study visit in Baltimore, Maryland, healthy young adult participants provided matched blood and saliva samples (N=99; age 18–37 years, 42% female) and completed an oral health questionnaire. Biospecimens were assayed for total IgG and immune markers related to inflammation (cytokines), blood in saliva (transferrin), and tissue remodeling (matrix metalloproteinase-8). Total IgG (μg/mL) concentrations were higher in serum than saliva. Salivary total IgG was associated with some self-reported oral health measures, and strongly positively associated with all salivary immune markers. Controlling for salivary total IgG may be a feasible, affordable approach to adjusting salivary biomeasure findings for the influence of the oral immune environment when it is not possible or practical to obtain clinical oral health data.
Adiponectin: Serum-Saliva Associations and Relations with Oral and Systemic Markers of Inflammation.
This study addresses gaps in our understanding about the validity and utility of using salivary adiponectin to index serum adiponectin levels. Matched blood and saliva samples were collected on a single occasion from healthy adults (n=99; age 18-36 years, 53% male). Serum and saliva was assayed for adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα), and saliva was also assayed for markers of blood contamination (transferrin), total protein (salivary flow rate) and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8). We examined the extent to which salivary adiponectin was associated with serum adiponectin, and the influence of potential confounders on the serum-saliva correlation, including age, sex, body mass index, and markers of inflammation, oral health, salivary blood contamination, and flow rate. Findings revealed a modest serum-saliva association for adiponectin, and strong positive associations between salivary adiponectin and salivary levels of inflammatory cytokines, MMP-8, transferrin, and total protein. By contrast, salivary adiponectin was not related to serum levels of inflammatory activity. The magnitude of the serum-saliva association was strengthened when controlling for total protein in saliva, blood leakage into oral fluid, salivary inflammatory cytokines, and MMP-8. The pattern of findings extends our understanding of salivary adiponectin and its potential use as an index of circulating adiponectin levels.